1) Formulating a unified regulation for measuring and calculating the heat balance of refractory kilns and regenerative bricks
Among the energy consumption (fuel, electricity, water, etc.) of various refractory products (except fuels), magnesia-chrome bricks, magnesia bricks and magnesia-fired mud accounted for 70%-80%. The focus of energy saving of refractories should be to reduce fuel consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out thermal measurement of kiln, compile kiln heat balance table, comprehensively analyze heat consumption, find out the main direction of reducing heat consumption and improving heat efficiency and energy saving measures. According to custom, refractory kilns adopt unit product heat consumption as a measure of thermal economic performance. However, the heat consumption per unit product can only be compared among similar products. Although the heat economy of kilns can be compared relatively, it does not reflect the utilization of heat energy in kilns.
The truth of the situation. If there is no scientific criterion to measure the utilization of heat energy in kilns, it will inevitably hinder efforts to improve the thermal economic performance of refractory kilns in the future. Domestic and foreign industrial furnaces generally adopt "thermal efficiency" as the criterion to measure the quality of thermal energy utilization. By comparing the thermal efficiency of refractory kilns, the incomparable factors caused by the different properties of refractory raw materials can be eliminated. Therefore, refractory kilns are also very suitable.
Under the arrangement of the former Ministry of Metallurgy and Industry, the General Institute of Design and Research of Refractories for Anshan Coking Company compiled the "Provisional Regulations for the Measurement and Calculation of Thermal Balance of Tunnel Kiln, Shaft Kiln and Rotary Kiln" in the 1980s, and carried out experiments on several kilns respectively, which were approved as the industry standard.
Thermal efficiency_is used to evaluate the thermal economy of furnace and kiln
In formula Qe - the sum of theoretical values of physical and chemical heat consumed by materials in the system during calcination;
_Qi-Total Heat Income of the System
The "thermal efficiency" for evaluating kiln performance is defined as the ratio of the theoretical value of physical and chemical heat consumed by the material in the system during calcination (i.e. "effective heat") to the total heat income. With the increasing variety of refractories, the "effective heat" data of some new refractories during heating and calcination process need to be determined by scientific methods. Through the measurement of "thermal efficiency" of the kiln, it is found that the main heat loss is the heat loss of exhaust gas, the surface heat loss of the kiln body and the heat storage loss of the kiln car/kiln body. Based on this measurement, reliable technical support is provided for reforming the old kiln and designing the new kiln.
(2) Monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution in furnaces and kilns
Furnace dust is one of the main pollution sources. From 1990 to 1992, Anshan Coke Refractory Institute investigated and analyzed the pollution status of refractory factories in China, including mechanized shaft kiln, ultra-high temperature shaft kiln, rotary kiln, tunnel kiln and heat treatment kiln in alkaline refractory factories, and monitored various pollution factors. Result: According to the degree of environmental pollution, the four harmful substances in kiln flue gas are SO2, CO, NOx and dust. Comparing the pollution degree of different kilns, the order is tunnel kiln, heat treatment kiln, rotary kiln, ultra-high temperature shaft kiln and mechanized shaft kiln. Especially in mechanized shaft kiln, it exceeded the standard seriously. The emission of harmful substances is shown in Table 3. The use of multi-tube dust collector and cyclone dust collector results in low dust removal efficiency and serious excess of dust concentration. The use of electrostatic precipitator and cloth bag dust collector results in good results.